Scrutiny Applies to All Racial Classifications
n"[A] free people whose institutions are founded
upon the doctrine of
equality," should tolerate no retreat from the principle that government may treat people differently
because of their race only for
the most compelling reasons.
nAccordingly, we hold today that all racial
classifications, imposed by
whatever federal, state, or local governmental actor, must be analyzed by a reviewing court under
nIn other words, such classifications are constitutional
only if they are narrowly
tailored measures that further compelling governmental interests. To the extent that Metro
Broadcasting [which cited
Fullilove to defer to congressionally supported affirmative action] is inconsistent with that holding,
it is overruled.