ADARAND CONSTRUCTORS, INC. v. PENA,
515 U.S. 200 (1995)
JUSTICE O'CONNOR delivered an opinion concluding that:
All racial classifications, imposed by whatever federal, state, or local governmental actor, must be analyzed by a reviewing court under strict scrutiny.
The decision here makes explicit that federal racial classifications, like those of a State, must serve a compelling governmental interest, and must be narrowly tailored to further that interest.